Chapter 9: Introduction to VCE OES

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the history of VCE OES
  • Explain the structure and underpinning concepts within the new VCE OES study design
  • Analyse why students may want to study VCE OES
  • Evaluate a possible model of teaching cross-study specifications and relationships in VCE OES

9.1 Introduction to VCE OES

Victorian Certificate of Education Outdoor and Environmental Studies (VCE OES) is a world-leading example of a senior years outdoor education curriculum. This study introduces students to an array of environmental issues that help them to understand the relationships that they and other people have with outdoor environments. Via direct outdoor experiences, students experience a breadth of Victorian outdoor environments and study a range of environmental constructs through their experiences.

This chapter introduces you to some of the key concepts in VCE OES. It is designed as an introduction to the course of study. Through this chapter, we explore the structure of the VCE OES study design, the history of the course, the latest updates and some of the overarching ideas that underpin VCE OES teaching. Whilst this chapter tries to draw your attention to some of the key ideas behind the VCE OES curriculum, it is prudent in this and the other chapters in Part C of this book, to remind you that they should be read in conjunction with the VCE OES study design. The latest version of which can be downloaded from the VCAA website.

When teaching any VCE study, you should ensure you are using the latest version of the study design. In addition, due caution is required to ensure that resources used are either: published alongside and relevant to the current study design or audited by you as the teacher to ensure compliance. Part C of this book was written in 2023 following the release of the newly revised study design. Accordingly, the case studies and other information contained herein are an accurate reflection of the current VCE OES curriculum at the time of publication. However, it remains the sole responsibility of the teacher running the course to ensure that their practices align with the requirements of the VCAA. You should remember this when reading Part C of this text and stay abreast of any changes to the course through the VCAA communications.

In addition to the study design, the VCAA also publishes support materials for teachers. Many publications such as this book, student textbooks and other commercial resources are available to support your teaching of the VCE OES curriculum. It is important to understand the respective role of the different publications.

  • The VCE OES Study Design – Sets out the curriculum and dictates what can and cannot be assessed in the VCE OES examination and school-assessed coursework (SAC).
  • The VCAA Support Material (Previously Advice for Teachers) – Guides how to interpret the study design.
  • All other publications (Textbooks, Commercial SACs, etc.) – Are not endorsed by the VCAA. You should regularly audit publications other than those produced by the VCAA to ensure they align with the most recent study design. We further discuss strategies for adopting commercially produced assessment tasks in 12.4.


9.2 History of VCE OES

VCE OES, and outdoor education more broadly, has a long history as part of the senior secondary curriculum in Victoria. Outdoor Education, one of two predecessor subjects to the current VCE OES course, was introduced into the senior secondary curriculum in 1982 (Gough, 2007). The now outdated outdoor education course focused more on the individual student’s participation in adventure-based activities centred around their own development (Preston, 2014).  The other course of study, that was also an originally independent subject, was the now redundant VCE Environmental Studies.

In the late 90s, a reorganisation of the environmental-based curriculum in Victoria within the VCE was undertaken by the Board of Studies (now VCAA) (Gough, 2007). This reorganisation of environmental education in the VCE saw: a) the amalgamation of VCE Outdoor Education and VCE Environmental Studies to become VCE Outdoor and Environmental Studies; b) the inception of a new VCE course of Environmental Science; and c) the strengthening of the environmental components of other study designs (geography, biology, etc.) (Gough, 2007).  The newly harmonised course of VCE OES introduced in 1997 has been marked as a significant greening (Martin, 2004) of the senior secondary outdoor curriculum in Victoria.

VCE OES has continued to evolve since this time. This has included two major revisions of the study. Implementation of the most recent major revisions happened in 2012 and in 2024. During this time, we observe that the study has continued to undergo processes of greening through which less emphasis is placed on student’s own responses to outdoor experiences and, rather, their study of environmental constructs through their own experience. This is particularly the case in units 3 and 4 of the study. Although the newly published study design (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023) helps strengthen the role and purpose of direct learning in the outdoors, it continues as an environmentally focused outdoor curriculum.


9.3 The Revised VCE OES curriculum

The VCAA, as the authority responsible for Victoria’s curriculum, regularly reviews and updates the VCE OES curriculum to ensure it remains current. The newly released VCE OES curriculum was revised following a major review of the curriculum in 2021-2022 (Ambrosy, 2021). As stated above, this revised study design follows the ongoing trend toward a green outdoor education curriculum. In particular, the revisions follow the remarks about the prior VCE OES curriculum in the review benchmarking report that “Victorian Certificate of Education (VCE) Outdoor and Environmental Studies (VCE OES) is a unique offering both domestically and internationally. The nexus between different ways of experiencing and knowing outdoor environments from both socio-cultural, and at times, scientific perspectives results in a contemporary and timely subject for students undertaking their final years of secondary schooling.” (Ambrosy, 2021, p. 3).

The latest VCE OES curriculum review saw significant structural and content reorganisation. When compared to the previous versions of the study design, the significant changes introduced in 2024 are:

  • The introduction of the cross-study specifications that underpin the course.
  • A revised push for direct outdoor experiences as part of the teaching of the course, including the introduction of Area of Study 3 (See 9.4.3) to better align the curriculum to these experiences.
  • A stronger focus on Indigenous peoples’ relationships with the outdoors is embedded across the course.
  • A shift away from structured questions (test style) school-assessed coursework.


9.4 Structure of VCE OES

This section unpacks how VCE OES is structured. It discusses some of the key parts of the VCE OES curriculum and, through doing so, aims to develop your competence to work with the study design.


9.4.1 Units and Outcomes

The VCE OES curriculum comprises four units of study. Each unit has two or three outcomes (or Areas of Study). The first two outcomes per unit set out the key knowledge and skills (see 9.4.2) based on a series of constructs and associated cognitive levels. Units 1, 2 and 4 all have an additional area of study that articulates the key practical knowledge and skills to be embedded in outdoor experiences (see 9.4.3).

The units and outcomes are below:

  • Unit 1: Connections with outdoor environments
    • Outcome 1 Our place in outdoor environments
    • Outcome 2 Exploring outdoor environments
    • Outcome 3 Safe and sustainable participation in outdoor experiences
  • Unit 2: Discovering outdoor environments
    • Outcome 1 Understanding outdoor environments
    • Outcome 2 Observing impacts on outdoor environments
    • Outcome 3 Independent participation in outdoor environments
  • Unit 3: Relationships with outdoor environments
    • Outcome 1 Changing human relationships with outdoor environments
    • Outcome 2 Relationships with Australian environments in the past decade
  • Unit 4: Sustainable outdoor environments
    • Outcome 1 The importance of healthy outdoor environments
    • Outcome 2 The future of outdoor environments
    • Outcome 3 Investigating outdoor environments

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, n.d.-b Reproduced with permission.)

9.4.2 Key Knowledge and Skills

The VCE OES study design is articulated through three broad mechanisms. The key knowledge (KK) and key skills (KS) and the cross-study specifications (addressed in 9.4.4). The key knowledge breaks down what is to be learnt within each outcome by students. The key skills articulate how the knowledge will be applied and at what cognitive level based on Bloom’s verbs (Armstrong, 2010) (see 1.4).

Understanding the interplay between the KK and KS is imperative for successful VCE OES teaching. Whilst a focus on key knowledge is in many ways the driving force behind the development of a teacher’s curriculum in VCE OES, it is vital that the planning and delivery of this KK aligns to the relevant cognitive levels articulated within the study design for two key reasons. Firstly, during both school-assessed coursework and exams, students demonstrate their knowledge of the key skills being assessed at, or up to, the required cognitive level (this idea is unpacked further in chapters 12 & 13). Secondly, and likely more importantly, education is and should be shifting toward a greater focus on teaching (21st century) skills within the curriculum (Martinez, 2022). This shift sees a greater focus by students and teachers on the application of, rather than simply the acquisition of knowledge. The VCE OES curriculum provides one such opportunity to embed such an approach due to the value placed on skills and knowledge throughout the course.

Assigning a number system for quick reference is often useful when working with the VCE OES curriculum. When discussing the curriculum with experienced teachers, you will often hear them discuss parts by number. The commonly used numbering system comprises two or three-digit numerals. For example:

Numbering style



2 digits 2.1 Unit 2, Area of Study 1.
3 digits 2.1.1 Unit 2, Area of Study 1, KK dot point 1 in the list.

It is uncommon for teachers to number the key skills as they are typically thought of alongside key knowledge points. Mostly, in VCE OES, each KK will have a corresponding KS. Unit 3 AoS 1 KK/KS are displayed as printed in the study design below. As you will observe below, each KK point matches a KS.  In addition, the last KK in 3.1 has a second key skill.

Key knowledge

Australian outdoor environments before humans arrived, including characteristics of biological isolation, geological stability and climatic variations

relationships with outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous peoples’ communities before and after European colonisation

relationships of non-Indigenous peoples with specific outdoor environments as influenced by and observed in local or visited outdoor environments during historical time periods:

  • Early colonisation (1788–1859)
  • Pre-Federation (1860–1900)
  • Post-Federation (1901–1990)

the beginnings of environmentalism and the resulting influence on political party policy, as observed in one of the following historical campaigns:

  • Lake Pedder
  • Franklin River
  • Little Desert

Key skills

  • explain characteristics of Australian outdoor environments before humans arrived
  • analyse the changing relationships with Victorian outdoor environments expressed by specific Indigenous peoples’ communities before and after European colonisation
  • analyse the changing relationships of non-Indigenous peoples with Victorian outdoor environments as observed during historical time periods
  • describe the beginnings of environmentalism as observed in a historical campaign
  • evaluate the influence of environmentalism on the development of a government policy or political party

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023, pp. 22-23 Reproduced with permission.)

When you read the above key skills, you should recognise that the Bloom’s level varies across the outcome. For example, students are required to analyse the changing relationships of a specific Indigenous peoples’ community. In contrast, they are required to evaluate the influence of environmentalism on the development of a government policy or political party. The latter is a higher-order cognitive skill. When developing courses of study and assessment for this area, you will be required to do so based on the cognitive levels detailed within the study design. This is particularly important when preparing students for their school-assessed coursework and the externally set VCE OES exam. Both assessment mechanisms align with the cognitive levels set out in the study design. In Chapter 10 we unpack further how you might plan a learning and teaching sequence based on the cognitive levels expressed in the key skills.

Interestingly, in the first two outcomes of the study design (Unit 1 Area of Study 1 and 2), additional key skills are taught concurrently with all listed key knowledge points. As shown in the table below, the additional key skill of ‘interact sustainably with outdoor environments’ does not have a specific KK point that it is associated with. When this is the case, you should teach it alongside as many KK points as is practicable.

Key Knowledge

Key Skill

  • the influence of depictions of experiencing outdoor environments on personal responses, such as in the mainstream media, social media, music, art, writing and advertising
  • factors that affect access to experiencing outdoor environments, including socioeconomic status, cultural background, age, gender and physical ability
  • relevant technologies and their influences on outdoor experiences
  • the variety of personal responses to risk when experiencing outdoor environments, including the interplay between competence, perceived risk and real risk
  • analyse the depictions of experiencing outdoor environments on personal responses
  • explain factors that affect access to experiencing outdoor environments
  • explain the influence of relevant technologies on experiencing outdoor environments
  • compare a range of personal responses to risk when experiencing outdoor environments
  • interact sustainably with outdoor environments

Table 9.1 – Unit 1 – Area of Study 2 – Exploring Outdoor Environments (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023, p. 15 Reproduced with permission.)

9.4.3 Area of Study 3

In the revised 2024-2028, VCE OES study design, three new Areas of Study (AoS) have been introduced. These are:

  • Unit 1 – Area of Study 3 – Safe and sustainable participation in outdoor experiences
  • Unit 2 – Area of Study 3 – Independent participation in outdoor environments
  • Unit 4 – Area of Study 3 – Investigating outdoor environments

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023 Reproduced with permission.)

Structurally, the above represents an increase from eight to eleven areas of study and resulting outcomes to report on when compared to the previous study design. However, these outcomes do not introduce further content; they are a reorganisation and grading structure to support teaching outdoor experiences within the VCE OES curriculum.

Outdoor experiences are fundamental to the teaching of VCE OES (see chapter 11).  Outdoor experiences as part of a course of VCE OES should relate to a broad range of key knowledge and skills likely across at least an entire AoS or unit. In addition, the new AoS 3 outcome provides information about the types of learning experiences and practical skills that should be included in outdoor experiences. Thus, AoS 3 should not be taught in addition to the other AoS’ within a given unit but through an integrated approach to outdoor experience and other curricula from AoS 1 and 2. The structure and function of AoS 3 differ at units 1 and 2 and units 3 and 4. We unpack this below.

Units 1 and 2 each have their own AoS 3. The KK and KS contained in each are inherently practical. These outcomes should be taught alongside the other outcomes within their respective units. In units 1 and 2, AoS 3 details the practical knowledge and skills that should be embedded within the VCE OES course. The majority of both outcomes should be taught and assessed as part of your chosen outdoor experiences, complimented by relevant activities that necessitate being done in class, for example, route planning for a walk before departure.  In units 1 and 2, AoS 3 is assessed through a student-completed logbook that records the experiences undertaken and gathers evidence of learning. The structure and form of the logbook can vary based on the outdoor experience undertaken and the KK/KS being taught and assessed (see 11.4 and 12.6).

Unit 1 and 2, AoS 3 KK/KS are written to be taught as a scaffolded sequence of practical skills. In Unit 1, AoS 3, the focus is on the student’s own personal preparation and participation in outdoor experiences. This includes selecting and using personal and group equipment and minimal impact strategies to ensure that their participation in outdoor experiences is safe and sustainable. In Unit 2, AoS 3, the focus shifts from the students’ own participation to beginning to lead others. As part of this, students consider the role of external factors (weather, environment, etc.) on their own and others’ participation in outdoor experiences. To demonstrate this outcome, students are required to lead peers as part of outdoor experiences. We provide a case study of peer leading in chapter 11 (see 11.3).

Unit 4, AoS 3 differs in structure and its KK/KS from the AoS 3s included in units 1 and 2. This outcome will be taught and assessed across units 3 and 4 using a selection of KK and KS drawn from units 3 and 4 (see an example in 12.6). Your role as the teacher is to decide which KK/KS from other outcomes you will teach and report on in unit 4, AoS 3. The KK/KS in this AoS 3 differs from its unit 1 and 2 equivalents. In unit 4 AoS 3, the focus shifts from practical skills and knowledge to the use of the outdoors as study sites for the teacher-chosen KK/KS.


9.4.4 Cross-study specifications

The revised 2024 study design introduced cross-study specifications that underpin all units and outcomes within the VCE OES. The specifications are broken down into three categories.

  1. Key concepts
  2. Outdoor experiences
  3. Key practical skills

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023, pp. 10-12)

Four new key concepts have been introduced within the VCE OES study design, they are: Indigenous Australians’ knowledge, culture and history; outdoor environments; environmental citizenship; and sustainability. The study design explains each of these concepts. In addition to the information in the study design, the following points provide advice regarding implementing these key concepts. We discuss outdoor experiences and key practical skills in chapter 11.

Indigenous Australians’ Knowledge, Culture and History

You should embed Indigenous peoples’ perspectives within various parts of your course. To do so, it is important to follow cultural protocols when working with Indigenous people. An example protocol is as follows:

Cultural Interface Protocols for Engaging with Aboriginal Knowledge

  1. Use Aboriginal processes to engage with Aboriginal knowledge.
  2. Approach Aboriginal knowledge in gradual stages, not all at once.
  3. Be grounded in your own cultural identity (not “colour”) with integrity.
  4. Bring your highest self to the knowledge and settle your fears and issues.
  5. Share your own stories of relatedness and deepest knowledge.
  6. See the shape of the knowledge and express it with images and objects.
  7. Build your knowledge around real relationships with Aboriginal people.
  8. Use this knowledge for the benefit of the Aboriginal community.
  9. Bring your familiar understandings, but be willing to grow beyond these.
  10. Respect the aspects of spirit and place that the knowledge is grounded in.

(8 Ways, n.d.)

In addition to operating within a cultural framework, consider how you can teach Indigenous peoples’ perspectives and use Indigenous peoples’ ways of communicating and knowing. The 8 Ways of Learning framework (below) provides a useful tool to achieve this. Further information can be found at


The 8 ways of learning are Community Links, Deconstruction/Reconstruction, Non-Linear, Land Links, Symbols and Images, Non-Verbal, Learning Maps and Story Sharing. The image shows them as all interconnected

Image 9.1 – 8 Ways (8 Ways, (n.d.) is licenced under CC0)


Outdoor environments

Within your VCE OES course, you should plan to visit and teach about a range of outdoor environments. “A wide variety of outdoor environments could be studied, ranging from those that have experienced minimal human influence, through to those that have undergone significant human intervention” (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, 2023, p. 10). Accordingly, it is recommended that you plan your course around various outdoor environments. The VCE OES course should be delivered through diverse outdoor environments, including those local to your school. Local experiences often come at little cost yet enhance the theoretical teaching of your OES program.


Environmental citizenship

The VCE OES course has been written to encourage active environmental citizenship from students who complete/are undertaking the course. As part of this, consider how you can model positive environmental behaviours during your course. As Verlie et al. (2021) discuss, positive environmental actions are a way in which educators can empower students to learn about the environmental crises that we face. Some ways in which you could participate in positive environmental action through your VCE OES course include:

  • Emphasising minimal impact strategies when conducting outdoor experiences.
  • Participating in activities such as citizen science, rubbish clean-ups, weed removal or tree planting days.
  • Have students write letters calling for environmental change by the school, government or local industries.

In addition to providing opportunities for your students to participate in positive environmental actions, you should also be aware of how your students engage in the content around issues such as climate change. Students showing signs of distress and anxiety surrounding these topics may need to be referred through your school process for additional support.



Sustainability is explicitly addressed in the KK/KS and is an underpinning concept in VCE OES. Like many constructs in the course, it is a complex and interwoven idea through which students can examine and make judgments about various relationships and interactions humans have with outdoor environments. The three pillars model (see image 9.2), sometimes called the triple bottom line model of sustainability, can help you to examine different actions and consider their sustainability. A good way of doing this is discussed in the case study below, where students are asked to use the three pillars model to examine the technology they have used on a recent outdoor experience.

Image 9.2 – Pillars of Sustainability (VCAA, VCE Outdoor and Environmental Studies: Planning webpage; graphic Dmitry Kovalchuk


Case Study 9.1 – Sustainability as a Thinking Tool

KK: 1.2.3 relevant technologies and their influences on outdoor experiences

KS: explain the influence of relevant technologies on experiencing outdoor environments


Outdoor environment: Surf Coast

A unit 1 VCE OES class has recently completed a four-day outdoor experience along the surf coast. The experience included surfing, stand-up paddle boarding, bird watching, sunset photography, visiting a local historical society and a bush walk. Back in class, the teacher has the students brainstorm different technologies they used on their trip. They came up with the following list:

  • Trangia stoves
  • Gore-tex rain jackets
  • Foam surfboards
  • Wet suits
  • Stand-up paddle boards and paddles
  • Lifejackets
  • Maps and compasses
  • Mobile phones
  • Nylon tents and tarps

The teacher assigns pairs of students one piece of technology to think about. The students are then given a sheet and asked to think about the sustainability of their piece of technology from social, economic, and environmental perspectives. They do so by annotating the following diagram.

Image 9.3 – Venn diagram of three pillars sustainability model


9.5 Other Underpinning Concepts in VCE OES

Relationships with outdoor environments is a further underpinning concept in the VCE OES curriculum. This concept is the basis for unit 3, but is also helpful in other parts of the course. In unit three, students consider both historical and contemporary (defined as relationships occurring in the past decade) relationships with the outdoor environments they study. The VCAA provides the following information in the support material regarding relationships. This model is often referred to by teachers and students using the abbreviation P.I.I. (Perceptions, Interactions and Impacts).

Human-nature relationships are very complex. There are many types of relationships including social, cultural, spiritual and physical. The following diagram represents one way of studying relationships within Australian outdoor environments. Perceptions of, interactions with, and impacts on outdoor environments are part of an interconnected understanding of these relationships.


Image 9.4 – PII Model of Relationships (Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. n.d.-a Reproduced with permission)


Students are encouraged to go beyond this simplified diagrammatic approach in their understanding of, and writing about, these relationships. One useful way of doing that is to consider the use of metaphors as useful descriptors of and analogues for these relationships. Some examples that can be helpful include:

  • the outdoors as a mother
  • the outdoors as an adversary
  • the outdoors as a museum
  • the outdoors as a gym
  • the outdoors as a cathedral.

(Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority, n.d. Reproduced with permission.)


Case Study 9.2 – Teaching Relationships

KK: 3.2.2 conservation, recreation and economic relationships with outdoor environments

KS: compare different human relationships with outdoor environments, including Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples’ relationships


Outdoor environment: Canadian Corridor (Ballarat)

A VCE OES group is using the Canadian Corridor (the area around Canadian Creek on the east side of Ballarat) to study relationships with outdoor environments in the last decade. As part of this, the group goes on a bike ride that stops at key locations to study the relationships in the area. The teacher has the students record the relationships they observed in the following table (note, this table could be used as a logbook entry, see 12.6).

Location Group Perception Interaction Impact
Fed Uni Tree Planting Site Fed Uni Staff and Students The environment as…a site for restoration, a place that needs protection to ensure a sustainable future. Fed Uni staff and students have planted indigenous tube stock to rehabilitate the hill and water course at the top of the university. Appropriate plants are being planted in a water course, which will help limit erosion during heavy rain as deeper roots of trees and shrubs can stabilise the dirt better than introduced grass.
Mount Clear Loop Club Mud Mountain Bikers The environment as…a gymnasium, a place to test and build your skills. MTB riders come to the Mount Clear loop to ride the blue and green runs. These runs also play host to ‘dirt crits’. The impact of mountain biking is minimised as Parks Victoria has installed a wash station at the trailhead. MTBers wash their tyres to avoid spreading cinnamon fungus through the park.
Ballarat Gold Mine Miners The environment as…a resource, a commodity that can be bought and sold. The Ballarat Gold Mine (company) run a deep mine through which they blast twice a day and bring rock to the surface that gets crushed and ‘assayed’ in search of gold. The gold extraction process is very dependent on water and the use of chemicals. These are then discharged to be stored in a tailings dam with strict environmental controls to make sure it does not make it into the local catchments.

This chapter has introduced some key ideas within the VCE OES study design. It has broken down some of the structure and function of the study. As stated in the introduction to the chapter, you must read this in conjunction with reading the latest available version of the study design from the VCAA. If you have not already done so, you should download it and read through the study’s aims and rationale before completing the reflection questions below.

Reflection Questions

  • When did VCE OES become part of the VCE? Which two previous studies amalgamated to make this course?
  • How is VCE OES structured?
  • What is the role of the cross-study specifications and area of study 3?
  • Why might students want to undertake the VCE OES course?
  • How might you teach the cross-study specifications and other underlying concepts, such as relationships within the VCE OES curriculum?


8 Ways. (n.d.). 8 Aboriginal Ways of Learning: Aboriginal Pedagogy.

Ambrosy, J. (2021). Benchmarking Report: Senior Secondary Outdoor and Environmental Studies 2022. Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority.

Armstrong, P. (2010). Bloom’s Taxonomy. Vanderbilt University Center for Teaching.

Gough, A. (2007). Outdoor and environmental studies: More challenges to its place in the curriculum. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 11(2), 19-28.

Martin, P. (2004). Outdoor adventure in promoting relationships with nature. Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education, 8(1), 20-28.

Martinez, C. (2022). Developing 21st century teaching skills: A case study of teaching and learning through project-based curriculum. Cogent Education, 9(1), 2024936.

Preston, L. (2014). Students’ imaginings of spaces of learning in outdoor and environmental education  [Journal Article]. Taylor & Francis.

Verlie, B., Clark, E., Jarrett, T., & Supriyono, E. (2021). Educators’ experiences and strategies for responding to ecological distress. Australian Journal of Environmental Education, 37(2), 132-146.

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (2023). Outdoor and Environmental Studies – Study Design.

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.-a). VCE Outdoor and Environmental Studies: Planning.

Victorian Curriculum and Assessment Authority. (n.d.-b). The Victorian Curriculum F-10.



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A Teachers Guide to Outdoor Education Curriculum: Victorian Edition Copyright © 2023 by Federation University and Australian Catholic University is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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